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The Fatherhood Bonus & Motherhood Penalty


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The wage gap between men and women persists; but it isn't evenly distributed. For example, never-married women have nearly closed the wage gap, but the pay gap related to parenthood is increasing.


Taking into account all factors, fatherhood increases men's earnings by 6% (larger if you're white, professional, highly educated; it increases earnings if you're already privileged in the labor market).


Taking into account all factors, motherhood decreases earnings by 4% per child; although it's larger for low-wage workers and top earners don't experience any motherhood penalty.


For Millennials that becoming parents, this research is critical in helping them understand the important nuances in the wage gap; men that are least privileged in the labor market due (due to their skills, or due to their race) will receive a smaller bonus while less-privileged women will face the largest penalties.





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